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  • The world is moving to the cloud and various post-monolithic SQL databases are emerging. The term “NewSQL” was coined by 451 Research analyst Matt Aslett in 2011, and in 2016 Aslett and Professor Andrew Pavlo of Carnegie Mellon University published a paper titled, “ What’s Really New with NewSQL ,” describing NewSQL as a new class of database management systems...Read more

  • We typically talk about transactions in the context of Data Manipulation Language (DML), but the same principles apply when we talk about Data Definition Language (DDL). As databases increasingly include transactional DDL, we should stop and think about the history of transactional DDL. Transactional DDL can help with application availability by allowing you perform multiple modifications in a...Read more

  • What does NuoDB do?

    TL;DR: NuoDB is a distributed SQL database .

    NuoDB is a SQL database, it is fully transactional, fully ACID, and fully consistent. This is a stark contrast to NoSQL solutions that have emerged in the last decade.

    NuoDB is distributed, meaning that it is able to scale horizontally and automatically keeps multiple replicas in sync. Having multiple replicas of...Read more

  • In SQL you can perform a lot of DDL operations, such as creating or renaming tables, creating or removing columns, and more, and these DDL statements are most often used when creating or upgrading your application schema. However, there’s more to transactional DDL than just being able to do large schema updates atomically. Transactional DDL also provides protection against failures. That...Read more

  • Introduction

    This tutorial will walk you through the whole process of using free Let’s Encrypt certificates in NuoDB. First, we will create certificates using Let’s Encrypt as described in their documentation. Second, we will convert those certificates into various certificate formats that NuoDB processes require. At the end of this tutorial, we will show you what to look for in...Read more

  • Internally, NuoDB uses the two-phase commit protocol to manage durability of user data. NuoDB also supports the X/Open XA protocol for synchronizing global transactions across multiple data stores. XA is also sometimes referred to as two-phase commit. The fundamental principles in both protocols are similar, but serve different purposes. Let us explore the difference between these two...Read more

  • As I explained in a previous blog post , sometimes MVCC is not sufficient and an operation needs to block out all other concurrent modifications. NuoDB is able to lock three types of lockable resources: tables, schemas, and sequences. A resource can either be locked in SHARED mode (which still allows record modification, but no metadata modification) or EXCLUSIVE which prevents any concurrent...Read more

  • Let us imagine a scenario that needs to prevent MVCC write skews...

    One transaction increases the salary of everyone in a department by 10%; another transaction inserts a new employee with a salary X. Since the two transactions do not conflict, MVCC does not prevent either of them from committing. After both resolve, the overall salary in the department could be above the budget. To...Read more

  • As a distributed, ACID-compliant database, we get a lot of questions about how NuoDB works, and how it compares to more well-known architectures. In particular, people want to understand how NuoDB compares to a master / master architecture, and (related) how we handle lock management. This post will discuss both. We will also discuss when shared-nothing architecture is viable and when...Read more

  • Introduction

    Traditionally, relational databases were designed for scale-up architectures. Supporting more clients or higher throughput required an upgrade to a larger server. Until recently, this meant that implementing a read & write scale-out architecture either required a NoSQL database and abandoning traditional relational database benefits, or relying on sharding and explicit...Read more